History of DiSC

Although DiSC was formally proposed much later, the seed about differences in individuals was generated much earlier.


In 444 B.C. Empodocles recognized that people behaved in different manners. He associated these differences to the elements that constitute the environment i.e. Fire, earth, air and water. In fact, multiple astrology disciplines still utilize this concept to determine the personality styles.

However, the concept of personality differences took a new turn in 400 B.C. when Hippocrates shifted the focus to internal factors. He established the four temperaments model which suggested that four body fluids affected the human personality traits to form four temperaments – Choleric, Sanguine, Phlegmatic and Melancholic.


There on, psychology moved at a fast pace, but it wasn’t until 1921 that there was any development towards DiSC. In 1921, Carl Jung attributed the personality differences to the way in which we think and process information. He came up with four styles – Thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition which are now employed in the Myers Briggs Personality Test (MBTI).

DiSC Theory

DiSC Classic

In 1928, William Moulton Marston published his book “Emotions of Normal People”. Marston theorized that the
impact of normal human emotions on creating behavioural differences among groups of people and the changes that one could see in a person’s behaviour over time.

In his book, Marston laid the foundation for the instrument by identifying four “primary emotions” stemming from the person’s perceptions of self in relationship to his or her environment.

William Moulton Marston understood that the DISC Personality Styles (What are DiSC Behavioral Styles?) were both internal and innate, but were impacted largely by our external environment.These four types were labeled by Marston as Dominance (D), Inducement (I), Submission (S), and Compliance (C).

Theory to Assessment

Walter V. Clarke published the Activity Vector Analysis in 1956. With this, he became the first person to build an assessment instrument based on Marston’s model. The tool used by Clarke since 1948, consisted of a checklist of adjectives on which he asked people to mark descriptors they identified as true of themselves. The four factors in his data were aggressive, sociable, stable and avoidant.
A decade later, the instrument was developed further by John Cleaver and called Self Description. The new instrument forced the test-takers into making a choice between two or more terms depending upon what was most and least like them instead of using a checklist as earlier. Additional validation of this assessment came with the use of factor analysis.

Personal Profile System

John Geier, in 1970 used Self Description to create the original Personal Profile System® (PPS). The tool took the responses from John’s instrument to further understand the 15 classical patterns discovered by Clarke.
The Personal Profile System was revalidated in 1994 as over the years meanings of some words had evolved and were changed in the forced-choice instrument.

Today, DiSC assessment includes 28 tetrads after the addition of four more tetrads. This self-scored and self-interpreted tool is used for enhancing self-awareness and known as DiSC Classic. In 2003, Inscape launched an online version of the paper profile with a richer narrative feedback calling it DiSC Classic 2.0.

Today, DiSC has benefitted the people around the world by the continuous efforts of Inscape Publishing towards developing a more valid and reliable instrument with multiple uses.