A generic process that is traditionally used by instructional designer and training process is typically the description of the ADDIE model. The expansion of ADDIE model is Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation which reflects a dynamic and flexible guideline for developing effective training and performance support tools.
Theories such as behaviourism, constructivism, social leaning and cognitivism help in shaping and defining of instructional materials which are also known as instructional theories.
Each step of the ADDIE model has an outcome that feeds into the subsequent step.
The first step of the ADDIE model is the analysis phase in which the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established. Simultaneously, the learning environment as well as the learner’s existing knowledge and skills are recognized. Some of the common questions that are to be identified and answered are
- Who constitute the audience and what are their characteristics?
- What maybe the behavioural outcome?
- What do the types of learning constrain that may exist?
- What are he considerations of the online pedagogy?
- What are the delivery options?
The timeline required for project completion.
Once the common questions are addressed, the training plan is to be generated that addresses:
What, when, where, why and how.
The core of the training plan will include as to how one can improve the current situation and achieve the business goals through training. This is seen as the foundation of the process.
Requirement of the phase: an analysis of training needs and a training plan
This phase of design entails learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. This phase of the ADDIE model should be specific and systematic. The term specific means each component of the instructional design plan needs to be performed with scrutiny to the details. Systematic refers to a logical, orderly system of recognizing, developing and assessing a set of planned strategies that is targeted for the attainment of the projects goals and objectives.
These are steps used for the design phase:
- The project’s instructional, visual and technical design strategy should be documented.
- The instructional strategies are applied to the intended behavioural outcomes by the particular domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
- Create storyboards
- Design the user interface and user experience
- Prototype creation
- Apply visual design (graphic design)
Requirement of the phase: an overview of the course design and storyboards/prototypes
In this phase of the ADDIE model, the developers create and assemble the contents that were developed in the previous phase. The development and/or the integration of technologies is executed by the programmers and the debugging procedures are performed by the testers. According to the feedback received, the project is reviewed and received.
Requirement of the phase: Course Content
A method for training facilitators and learners will be created during the implementation stage. The preparation of facilitators should cover the curriculum, results of teaching, method of delivery, and processes for testing. The learners ‘ preparation includes training them on fresh instruments (software or hardware), registration of students.
In this phase, the project manager also ensures that the books, the hands-on equipment, the tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place. They also must supervise the learning application or website is functional.
Requirement of the phase: our courses are live in the LMS and learners can start to take and complete courses
This phase of the ADDIE model constitutes two parts. Each stage of the ADDIE process consists of formative evaluation. Summative tests consist of assessments designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and dispense opportunities for feedback from the users.
Requirement of the phase: An evaluation report and actionable changes for the current or future courses