Behavioral science has always been a matter of great discussion among the behavioral experts and scientists. These behavioral scientists have also developed the Organizational Development Models using the psychometric methods. These have been helpful in understanding the several needs of an organization.
A few popular Organizational Development Models are discussed here.
The model given by Kurt Lewin is based on the assumption that in an organization before introducing a change, they should be prepared for it. They should be motivated and encouraged to change. The Lewin’s Model has a hierarchy of steps for the same – unfreezing, changing and refreezing.
Just like the frozen peas or chicken needs to be defrosted before cooking, similarly in an organization before going forward with a change; it is important to go through the first and the initial step of unfreezing. Not everyone is as accepting of changes as others. To tackle them, it is necessary to make them aware about the necessity of the change and how it will change things for the better in the organization. The main concept of unfreezing is to feel motivated about the change and accept it.
According to Lewin, change is the process where the organization is transitioning or moving towards this new dimension. This stage is usually noted in the time record as it has a lot of uncertainty and fear. People learn new behaviors, process and think in different ways. During this process, the employees should be motivated and given reasons for performing better. They should be reminded about the benefits they will get in case of successful implementation.
The final stage as per Lewin is termed as refreezing. This step is important according to Lewin mainly to ensure that the people follow the new regime. The new change has to be embedded in the system of the organization.
Larry Griener’s Model
According to Griener, change occurs in certain sequential stages. It is changes in the external stimulus that are responsible for a change in the organization. The various stages of change occur in a sequential manner. It can be identification of the problem, finding the possible solution, trying and experimenting with this new solution and the reinforcement from positive results.
The Levitt’s Model is a critical success factor model. It is commonly used in change management. According to Levitt, there are 4 key success factors:
- Structure – This component has relationships, communication patterns as well as coordination between the different levels of management, departments and employees apart from the hierarchical structure. With the change in the organization, this structure also needs amendments.
- Managerial tasks – This includes tasks as well as goals. Managerial tasks have two components: how are the things being done and what is it that you intend to achieve.
- People – Do not look at the employees in your organization as accountants, managers, etc., instead look at their skill sets, efficiency, knowledge they possess and their productivity also.
- Technology – This is the component that facilitates the employees in performing their tasks.
These are the critical factors of change with which these factors interact with each other and must be reconciled with it.