The Concept of Competency Mapping
A process used in company management is competency mapping. It addresses the actions taken by workers. The procedure is simple enough to comprehend that even very tiny businesses can benefit from it. Yet, it has such tremendous consequences for businesses that as many as half of Fortune 500 corporations already employ it in some form. Finding the skills, or underlying traits, that enable you to perform at or above expectations is implementing a competency based approach. It also entails using such talents to your advantage in other business operations, such as accounting or hiring.
Introducing Competency Mapping
The core tenet of competency mapping is that behavioral and knowledge qualities may be learnt, and that people’s outward actions and knowledge sets only represent a small subset of their potential behaviors and knowledge sets. Competency based approach advocates contend that if a person is aware of the qualities required to succeed in a specific job or work environment, he or she can work to develop and hone those qualities.
Several competency mapping techniques split down strengths into two primary areas- functional and behavioral. Functional skills comprise practical information that a person needs to execute a job. For instance, a secretary’s functional needs can include experience with computer systems, office equipment, and bookkeeping expertise. These abilities can determine whether a worker is qualified to do his or her duties and are typically simple to assess through skill testing.
Key competences for an organization or institution, as well as the roles and tasks within it, are identified through the process of competency mapping. Every well-managed firm should – have well-defined positions, a competency based approach and a list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. This list should be used to identify training needs and for performance management, promotions, placement, and hiring.
What is Competency Mapping?
Let’s start by defining a competency precisely. Competency and skills are frequently used interchangeably. But there is a distinction. A skill is something you can learn. That is but one aspect of what constitutes expertise. Skill holds the answer to the “what” – it specifies what a person needs so they can carry out a given task or activity. Competence, on the other hand, defines how a person executes a task effectively and how their behavior helps them achieve the goal set for them. Competency gives the “how” in contrast.
Competency mapping is the process of identifying the abilities, competencies, and other personal characteristics of a certain function or employee so that the right personnel can be placed in the right projects or roles. Each job, role, or activity is broken down into a list of skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviors using competency mapping. A competency based approach uses behavioral markers to get around the fact that behaviors are not quantifiable. For instance, if a job requires teamwork as a fundamental (generic) ability, the relevant behavioral indicators would be cooperation, trust, and respect.
Proficiency level, which describes how proficient a person is in a specific ability, is also important to the competency mapping process. Are they a novice or a professional? A one-to-five scale, with 1 denoting the least proficiency and 5 the highest, is a typical way to gauge proficiency.
A good competency based approach results in a clearly defined competency matrix that specifies the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that a company demands of its employees for each position or department. A skills matrix is another name for a competency matrix. A current skills matrix is incomplete without the inclusion of competencies, despite the fact that we’ve already demonstrated that skills and competences aren’t exactly the same thing.
Need for a Competency Based Approach
Competency mapping is becoming more prevalent, popular, and in demand. The adage “Slow and steady wins the race” is no longer true given how quickly the corporate climate is evolving. Companies have been more cognizant of the necessity of having qualified personnel and establishing distinctive capabilities for every firm to deal with the changing global economy and keep in mind that the globe is becoming a global village.
Organizations require quick and reliable personnel that meet their standards for human quality. As such, in the sharper focus of management, a competency based approach is involved in the collection and constellation of information about the suitable talent in various levels.
5 Key Components of Competency Mapping
Competency mapping is the process of modelling the proper set of competencies at the required proficiency levels for certain roles in an organization. A competency based approach is built upon the competency framework created by a business, either internally, with the aid of external HR consultants, or through widely accessible off-the-shelf models.
Competency mapping’s essential elements are:
- Identification of Competencies:
The organization must identify a variety of competencies, including workplace competencies, core competencies, threshold competencies, distinguishing competencies, technical competencies, and behavioral competencies. The competency based approach must not only outline the competencies required for outstanding job performance, but also those that are distinctive to each job.
- Competency Models:
A company has the option of creating its own competency models or using pre-existing ones, also known as “off-the-shelf” ready to use models. Customizing an existing one to meet the demands of the organization is a common strategy.
The competency framework must also create synergies between various HR systems. For instance, it should be used to identify the most qualified candidates (internally and externally), train them on competency gaps, assess their performance on the job using competency-based objectives, and most importantly, connect the competency based approach to the organization’s career management systems.
- Employee Competency Assessment:
In order to enable observation and assessment of the specified competencies, the competence framework should also go further and establish behavioral indicators for each of the identified competencies. To make the model useful, the HR department should develop methods of evaluating competencies. Assessment centers, potential appraisals, 360-degree feedback, etc. are a few techniques.
- Competency Based Approach Development:
The best method to cultivate talent in any firm is to increase employee competencies. This must be an ongoing process rather than an isolated incident or even a series of incidents.
- Linking Competency Framework to Other HR Systems:
A competency management framework should be synergized with other HR systems for effective utilization of the same.
Competency Mapping Process
A competency based approach describes a group of abilities and characteristics that an employee possesses. It is a sophisticated plan that describes how the worker can do a specific task in the least amount of time. Increased employee productivity also speeds up turnaround for the company.
To enhance an employee’s productivity and performance, businesses also transfer, promote, and assign new jobs based on competency studies. A person’s abilities, values, attitude, aptitude, and morale are taken into account when determining how competent they are as an employee. This strategy is used in hiring as well. The human resources department also maps the competency of candidates through the competency based approach. Managers of human resources evaluate prospective and current workers during the hiring process.
The following are the steps and procedures for implementing a competency based approach:
- A job analysis is done, and a questionnaire is given to each employee. The survey gathers information about each respondent’s abilities, obligations, mindset, and attitude
- Similarly, interviews are used to measure employees’ answers
- The human resources division develops competency-based job descriptions using data that has been gathered
- If the employee’s role changes, the employer and the business agree to a new contract before it is signed
- The findings of competency analyses are sometimes made available to employees by businesses. Employees that receive feedback can better grasp where they rank among their colleagues
- A complete competency analysis report is created. The report also identifies opportunities for advancement for an employee. The report also offers tactics and training for an employee’s development
- The top-level management ultimately chooses which competency based approach to employ and how
Types of Competency Mapping
Let us look at some types of competency based approach:
- Intellectual Competency: Some workers come naturally with the ability to think critically and analytically. This aids in problem-solving, but the position must allow the individual to put these skills to use. Others may be able to communicate or speak a language. Some people are exceptional leaders and organizers. Employee talents vary throughout different industries and areas.
- Motivational Competency: Some people react better to external motivation or reinforcement. Naturally, some people have higher aspirations. But it’s crucial to remember that ambitious workers become dissatisfied if they believe their careers are stagnant. But the same ambitious group within the workforce is prepared to make the extra effort. Time management, goal-oriented progress, and meeting deadlines are used by analysts to gauge motivation.
- Social Competency: Employee interaction is a must in the majority of businesses. As a result, communication is crucial. Analysts evaluate social competency based on a person’s capacity for networking, professional relationships, and teamwork.
- Emotional Competency: This element determines an employee’s emotional intelligence. An individual with a high emotional quotient is better able to handle stress, concentrate for extended periods of time, and keep their optimism. Emotional control is the emotional quotient. These workers exhibit greater professionalism. They demonstrate a good work-life balance. They are more adept at keeping work and personal lives apart.
Objectives and Purpose of Competency Mapping
Currently, a lot of companies with a lot of HR practices are using the concept of competency mapping. To enhance the performance management system, HR directors and their top management have always considered a competency based approach and included them in the appraisal forms.
Because it improves efficiency, streamlines processes, and drives strategy for everything from learning and development to recruiting, retention, and evaluation, effective competency mapping can be a great value to a company. Naturally, it also has advantages for personal growth.
Competency mapping benefits the following domains
- Recruitment: At each stage of the hiring process, competency mapping can be extremely helpful. The correct candidates are attracted by clear job descriptions based on necessary competencies, and HR is spared the time and hassle of sorting through a sea of unnecessary CVs. The likelihood of employing candidates with the appropriate abilities increases with a competency-based interview. A crucial component of a competency based approach is having expectations that are clearly stated and communicated. Incorporating goals and expectations in offer letters to successful candidates throughout the recruitment process itself will make sure there is no room for ambiguity.
- Professional development: Organizations can address these deficiencies by providing goal-focused learning, upskilling, and training support after conducting a competency mapping exercise to identify gaps between intended and existing competences and proficiency levels. Offering clear avenues to professional development and career growth is crucial not only to keeping high-performing staff but also to attracting fresh talent. A competency based approach helps employees manage their careers in a way that results in more opportunities for promotions and more rewarding roles within the organization by increasing their understanding of what is expected of them.
- Appraisals: Evaluating employees on their competency in a set of skills makes for a fair, merit-based evaluation system, which will not only be appreciated by the staff but will also boost productivity and performance. With the organization’s assistance, of course, managers will be able to express the strengths and weaknesses of each team member using the standards established in the competency matrix. More transparency in the evaluation process will result from encouraging open communication from individuals being evaluated and acting on that information.
- Succession planning: With the aid of a competency based approach, workers who exhibit leadership traits and abilities can be prepared for future leadership positions. The candidates can fill in any gaps between their existing and desired skill levels in the necessary competencies, so they are prepared to take on the challenge when it comes. Again, a lack of clear expectations is one of the largest barriers to successful leadership in the absence of a good competency matrix. According to Gallup’s State of the American Workers study, managers are “four points less likely to say their job description is clear or that it matches to the work they do” than their team members.
- Resource allocation: By assisting businesses in assigning the appropriate personnel for the job, competency mapping facilitates project planning and considerably improves the likelihood of project success.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Competency Mapping
The advantages of competency mapping are as follows:
- Employees receive critical feedback from a competency based approach. They have a better understanding of the company’s aims and organizational objectives after analysis
- It assists in building a disciplined recruitment procedure
- Key information is provided through competency analysis. This information is used by upper-level management for decisions, transfers, restructuring, and training
The disadvantages are:
- Statistics and comments are only helpful if staff want to do better. Sometimes workers aren’t motivated
- Unless there is a fundamental change within the organization, analyses do not improve performance. Implementation is challenging
- A competency based approach costs money, takes time, and is tiresome. Sometimes the impact is insufficient to warrant the cost
- For workers, change is frequently difficult. The staff may not share the enthusiasm expressed by top-level management. Aggressive actions can backfire; effective communication and seamless transitions are essential
Competence is the collection of information, abilities, and attitudes needed to carry out a task successfully and effectively. Competency is something that explains how a task might be completed exceptionally well; competency just explains what must be done, not how. The foundation upon which an individual rests is their core competency, which cannot be duplicated.
One of the most precise methods for determining a person’s job and behavioral capabilities in an organization is skill development through a competency based approach. Competency mapping is not only done for regular employees of a company, and it can also be done for contract workers or for those seeking employment to emphasize the special abilities which would make them useful to a potential employer.