Personality can be measured through different ways. There are different types of tests like objective tests and projective tests to assess personality.
Objective tests are psychological tests which measures the characteristics of people objectively without the bias of the rater. In these types of tests, individual has to mark the response on the questions provided. Then the responses are compared against the standardized norms which will help in determining the characteristics of the individual.
The validity of the objective tests is higher than the projective tests because there are no subjective answers in the test, individual has to choose from the available responses. The most common hinderance that objective tests find is that individual may not be willing to be honest and open while filling the questionnaire.
This may affect the scores and hence the final analysis of the characteristics of the individual. People generally have the tendency to choose the option which is socially accepted and is correct. But psychometric tests are able to find out whether the individual has faked the response.
This maintains the validity of the objective tests. The most common objective tests are self-report inventory where an individual is provided with questionnaire and he/she has to mark the response for each question on a Likert scale. It can be 3-point, 5-point, or 7-point Likert scale. Some of the widely used self-report personality tests are 16PF, Myers Briggs Types Indicator, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Neo Pi-R, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, etc. Each test measures different characteristics of the individual.
Projective tests usually work on Freudian principle of knowing the unconscious perceptions and thought process through ambiguous stimuli. These tests are less valid than objective tests because the scoring are not as standardized. The personal belief of the examiner comes while reviewing the responses of the individual. As examiner has to use the discretion, this might lead to some sort of bias.
The major advantage of projective tests over objective tests is that they are able to expose certain aspects of personality which objective tests are not able to do. This is because projective tests try to uncover unconscious personality traits which people are generally not willing to mark during objective tests. But projective tests don’t have good reliability and validity. They also lack scientific evidence and mostly rely on the subjective judgment of clinical psychologists.
Some of the projective tests are Rorschach Test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) etc.
Rorschach test was created by Herman Rorschach. There are ten inkblots which have a symmetrical design. Participant has to see the inkblot and tell what he/she can see. Based on the response, clinician will ask questions based on the response. And depending upon the answers, analysis will be done and then characteristics of the personality will be found out. It also helps in finding the emotional functioning of the person.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) has 30 cards with ambiguous drawings with one blank card. Test-takers have to tell a story about each picture with background which led up to the story. This will also help in finding the characteristics of the personality of individual.